MIRO' Joan

Joan Mirò | Original prints, lithographs, etchings and illustrated books


I work as a gardener or as a winemaker. Things mature slowly. My vocabulary of forms, for example, I have not found out in one fell swoop. It was formed almost in spite of myself.

(Joan Mirò)



Joan Miró i Ferrà (Barcelona, ​​20 April 1893 - Palma de Mallorca, 25 December 1983) was a Spanish painter, sculptor and ceramist, an exponent of surrealism.

Son of a goldsmith and watchmaker, Miquel Miró Adzerias (1858-1926), and his wife Dolores Ferrà of Oromi (1864-1944), Joan Miró began to draw from a very young age at the age of 8. On the advice of his father, Miró undertook commercial studies but in parallel he attended private drawing lessons; in this period (1910 to 1911) It was the long period of convalescence spent in the family home in Mont-roig del Camp to definitively consolidate its vocation; Miró himself later recognized in Mont-roig and Mallorca; the two poles of his inspiration.

He returned to Barcelona in 1912, attended the Galí Academy until 1915, after which he moved to the Sant Lluc Art Club. In 1916 Miro rented a studio and came into contact with personalities in the art world. These were the years in which Miró discovered Fauvism and held his first solo exhibition at the Galeries Dalmau (1918).

Attracted by the artistic community that gathered in Montparnasse, in 1920 he settled in Paris, where he met Picasso and the Dadaist circle of Tristan Tzara. Already in this period, in which he drew in the La Grande Chaumière academy, his decidedly original style began to take shape, initially influenced by the Dadaists but later brought to abstraction by the influence of surrealist poets and writers.

In 1926 he collaborated with Max Ernst for the set design of Romeo and Juliet and made the famous Nude. The following year, after the death of his father, Miró moved to the Cité des Fusains and had as neighbors, besides Ernst, also Jean Arp and Pierre Bonnard. Also in Paris, in 1928, his exhibition in the Georges Bernheim gallery made him famous.

On 12 October 1929 Miró married Pilar Juncosa (17 July 1904 - 25 November 1995) in Palma de Mallorca; the couple had one daughter named María Dolores (born July 17, 1931 and died December 26, 2004).

In these years he began the artistic experimentation of Miró, who experimented with lithographs, etching and sculpture, as well as with painting on tar paper and glass, and with grating [1].

With the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War (1936) he returned to Paris, where he dedicated himself to raising funds for the republican cause, but returned to Spain at the time of the Nazi invasion of France. From this moment he lived permanently in Majorca or in Montroig.

Miró was one of the most radical theorists of surrealism, to the point that André Breton, the founder of this artistic movement, described him as "the most surrealist of us all". Back in the family home, Miró developed a more and more pronounced surrealist style; in numerous writings and interviews he expressed his contempt for conventional painting and the desire to "kill her", "assassinate her" or "rape her" [2] to reach new means of expression. The first monograph on Miró was published by Shuzo Takiguchi in 1940.

After his mother's death in 1944, Miró began to devote himself to loose pottery and bronze sculptures.

In 1954 Miró won the graphic award at the Venice Biennale and in 1958 the International Guggenheim Prize. In these years he made many trips and exhibitions in the United States.

Since 1956 he settled permanently in Palma de Mallorca in a house designed and built by his brother-in-law, who later joined a workshop and a painting studio thanks to the help of his friend Josep Lluís Sert. In order to preserve the property so delineatasi, for him creative place par excellence, Miró donated part of it to citizenship, which in 1981 set up the Fundació Pilar and Joan Miró.

In the seventies and eighties Miro also dedicated himself to Mail art, as indicated in the book Recovery of the Memory of Eraldo Di Vita, which had written correspondence with the Spanish painter.

Already in 1972, Miró had created the Fundació Joan Miró in Barcelona.

In 1978 he devoted himself to set design for a theatrical show, as well as to monumental sculpture. From this period his famous sculpture Dona i ocell (Woman and Bird), located in the Joan Miró Park in Barcelona.

For the recognition at home, Miró had to wait for the years of old age and the fall of Francoism: in 1978 he received the Medalla d'Or de la Generalitat de Catalunya; in 1979 the University of Barcelona awarded him an honorary degree (Harvard University had already done so in 1968); in 1980 he received the Fine Arts gold medal from the Spanish king Juan Carlos; in 1981 he was awarded the Barcelona gold medal.

At an advanced age, Miró accelerated his work, creating hundreds of ceramics for example, including the Murales of the Sun and the Moon at the UNESCO building in Paris. He also dedicated himself to glass paintings for display. He also designed the official poster for the 1982 World Soccer Championship held in Spain.

In the last years of his life Miró conceived his most radical ideas, taking an interest in gaseous sculpture and four-dimensional painting.

Joan Miró died in Mallorca at the age of 90 and was buried in Barcelona, in the cemetery of Montjuïc.